To check if a record type is enabled for specific profile is easy, just open the profile and scroll to "Record Type Settings" sections. You can see and edit record type for specific standard or custom object. But, hang on, how about if I have 100 profiles? It mean, you need to open all 100 profiles and check it one by one. Hmm, not a good idea.
As of now (Summer '13 Release), there is no way to check this in Salesforce easily - which profiles are enable to specific record type. Admin have to manually open each profiles, then scroll to "Record Type Settings" section to check if the record type is enable for that profile. Can you imagine manual work if you have 100 profiles?
There is an idea posted in IdeaExchange, you are welcome to vote it https://success.salesforce.com/ideaview?id=08730000000BqaiAAC
Use Force.com IDE to identify which profiles have record type enable in specific object easier.
Here we go:
1. Open Force.com IDE (assume you have install Force.com IDE, if not Google it)
2. Add objects and profiles related into Force.com IDE
Make sure to include ALL objects you want to check into Force.com Project Contents in Force.com IDE, otherwise you will not see the record type information in the profile.
3. Open the Profile
Yes, you need to open all profiles in Force.com IDE, but of course this is faster and easier than open each profile in Salesforce. Look for <recordTypeVisibilities> tag, and you will see <visible> and <default> tags inside. Record Type with visible = true is Enabled for that profile; and for default = true is default record type when user create new record in Salesforce
Next, can we update using Force.com IDE?
Yes, you can just simply change the value from false to true; or from true to false. Once you save in Force.com IDE, it will save in Salesforce instantly.